Boris Zlotin and
Pedagogy (from the Greek paidagogike)
is the science of educating people.
A basic consequence of human evolution was
the growth in the amount of information that needed to be passed from one
generation to the next. Pedagogy, as a way to transfer information,
improved the course of evolution. It followed the criterion of ideality
(as does any system created by human beings) by providing the maximum
useful effect for minimum retribution in terms of money, work, time, loss
of information, losses due to poor education, and so on.
In the early stages of human evolution,
pedagogy, as we understand, did not exist. Children lived side-by-side
with adults, contributed to housekeeping as they were able, and gradually
acquired the necessary life skills without special training. As life
became more complex, it became impossible to acquire the required
knowledge and skills without special education. Furthermore, children
hindered the activities of adults, which were becoming more complicated
and, at times, dangerous.
Initially, pedagogy was more or less
"individually" oriented. Only a small number of children
(primarily the children of the wealthy) received education, which took
place in the home. In the course of social evolution, however, it became
clear that it is necessary to teach all children; and the demand for
"mass pedagogic production" emerged. As in any area of human
achievement, the transition to mass production resulted in deterioration
in "product" quality. (The first muskets made on a mass scale
were greatly inferior to hand-made ones.) And as in other areas, attempts
were made to return to the past – to some method of individual
education. This can benefit some individual children but, from a social
viewpoint, has always been a "blind alley." The correct way is
to develop methods of producing high quality mass education.
Developing a "mass pedagogy"
meant the creation of specialized subsystems – a type of
"reservation" for children. The functions of these reservations
are to separate children from the lives of the adults, and to purposely
prepare them for, in due course, such a life. A child is isolated from
social life and finds himself living within "protected walls,"
like an astronaut in a space suit. To support life, an astronaut must have
communication with other people as well as air, water, food, etc. – i.
e., at least minimum compensation must be made for the absence of the
common, earthy conditions of life. Similarly, children whose contact with
society is interrupted should be compensated as well. Pedagogy is called
upon to act as the "space suit’s" compensatory functions. This
space suit should be made in such a way that a child will be well provided
for. As the child matures, the size of the space suit must become larger
and the child’s level of isolation diminish so that, when the space suit
is removed, he/she can quickly become a full member of society. History
has shown, however, that the pedagogical "space-suits" made by
adults serve first and foremost the convenience of the adults.
Once mass pedagogy was developed, the
simplest way to ensure its effectiveness was to force children to study
and to punish them (even harshly) for insufficient studiousness. (By the
way, the high level of education in Russia during the 1950 through 1970s
accounted, to a large extent, for the strong system of punishment.) These
methods are effective for acquiring knowledge and skills, but they
restrain the child’s self-esteem, love of freedom, self-confidence, and
so on. Moreover, these methods progress in countries that have
totalitarian regimes, because the educational system is also totalitarian.
But for these reasons, this method will not do for use in American
schools. It contradicts the tendencies of the evolution of a democratic
society. The democratic way to increase the effectiveness of education is
to consider the child’s desires and needs.
Humans Need a Lot?
Freud wrote that, a human being, in the
beginning of his/her life, strives for pleasure. Later, he/she learns to
correlate pleasure with possible retribution, i. e., begins to follow the
"reality principle." Thus, the human motivating power is
striving for positive emotions (PE) and avoiding negative emotions (NE).
Let us refer to this as "personal ideality."
Personal Ideality = ------------------- (tends to increase)
The way to achieve positive emotions is
through the satisfaction of certain human needs.
formed a hierarchical structure of human needs – from physiological
needs (the lowest) to spiritual demands (the highest).
(self-development and realization)
(self-esteem, recognition, status)
Social needs (sense of belonging, love)
Safety needs (security, protection)
Physiological needs (hunger, thirst)
Figure 1. Maslow’s
Hierarchy of Human Needs
Unsatisfied needs, the contradiction
between the desire to satisfy them and the increase in retribution factors
and limited resources, the contradiction between various needs, and
between people in their struggles to satisfy these needs, were the
motivating power of personal behavior and human progress.
Of course, Maslow mentions only basic needs
that, to a certain degree, are inborn (i.e., genetically implanted). An
infinite number of specific needs, more or less common and strong (ranging
from a love of ice-cream to a love for symphonic music) are being formed,
based on these needs, in the process of general human evolution and
One of the basic functions of pedagogy is
the formation of a system of needs. Merely the formation of needs makes it
possible to manage a child’s education.
Existential (from the Latin existentia,
"existence") needs are the needs that must be satisfied for
basic existence. These are closely connected to the instinct of
self-preservation, which requires a personal knowledge and understanding
of one’s surroundings, and of how to exist and be successful in these
surroundings. These needs create an "investigative behavior"
peculiar to every animated creature, and which, in people, becomes
The human need for collective, imitative
behavior (a child imitates others), and the possibility of enhanced
prestige by means of education, can play a significant part in education.
However, our experience in educating
children has shown that the most important need that allows the process of
children’s education to be managed is the need for creativity. There are
various levels of creativity, as well as varying levels of creative
content in various kinds of work. The following basic conditions for
creative work can be identified:
- The presence of uncertainty, or of a
problem that can not be solved by known (by the would-be
problem-solver, at least) methods
- The freedom to work without instruction
as to when the work should be done, how, in what order, etc.
- The dependence of the results on the
particular individual: his/her experience, intuition, will power, etc.
- The possibility of competing with
someone (or with himself) to raise the level of achievement.
Viewed in this way, a farmer working his
land is doing creative work. Weather conditions bring uncertainty. Crop
yield depends on the farmer’s work – on his hands and brain. It is up
to him, to his intuition and experience, to take risks – to decide when
he should sow, how to care for the crops, when to harvest, and so on.
Likewise, the work of an engineer, manager, businessman, politician, etc.
is, at least in part, creative work.
It is possible to presume that creativity
plays the same part as do vitamins: a person needs only a small amount,
but lacking them entirely leads to disease and developmental problems. And
as with vitamins, a lack of creativity is especially dangerous for a
young, growing person. Very often the importance of being able to satisfy
higher-level needs is underestimated. People often believe that, if a
person has a job and enough food and clothing he should be satisfied,
without understanding the reasons for boredom, cruelty, vandalism . . . We
can presume that unsatisfied needs demand a certain type of compensation,
that an individual unconsciously seeks revenge on society for his/her
But why are all children, and far from all
adults creative? Why are they happy to work on creative problems and be
able to solve them? Why does a child’s natural curiosity turn into a
powerful thirst for knowledge for one individual and not another?
Everything depends on involving a person in
education and creativity through the psychological mechanism of
engagement, based on alternating positive and negative stimuli. It is
similar to the mechanism of involvement in sports, in collecting, in the
need for glory and power, or for alcohol, drugs, etc.
This involvement begins when a child
experiences pleasure in satisfying some natural need. This, in turn, leads
to the desire to increase the pleasure. However, due to the human
mechanism of habitual-ness, the level of pleasure falls when the previous
level of satisfaction is maintained. It therefore becomes necessary to
increase the "dose." A positive feedback loop develops, limited
only by the physical potential of the individual.
It is possible to control the involvement
in education through the human need for creativity. If there is a creative
component in education, it allows victories to be achieved, a person’s
self-esteem to be raised, and so on. This is why children enjoy
More often than not, children become
involved in creativity by chance, under the influence of a parent or
enlightened teacher. Usually, however, only those children who are somehow
pre-disposed to creative work become involved. The presence of the
conditions necessary for this involvement is the first success. What
happens if there is no success? Success that is too-easily obtained does
not create strong feedback. Another important condition of involvement is
the difficulties that usually follow a first success and that must be
overcome. Excessive difficulty, however, can alienate a child and reduce
his new-found desire to study and create. How can the level of creative
effort be regulated? How can creative success be ensured?
These things are possible when the teacher
is deliberately guided by the child’s creative abilities, and with the
Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). TRIZ is a new science that
allows creativity to be approached systematically, providing the
opportunity to teach any child to be creative and to develop creative
ability in any area of human activity.
Theory of Inventive Problem Solving and TRIZ Pedagogy
TRIZ was developed in Russia3
by Genrich Altshuller, a talented scientist and inventor, and his
followers. Altshuller’s work with TRIZ began in the 1940s and, to date,
much experience in applying TRIZ application to various areas of human
activity has been amassed.
TRIZ is based on the study and application
of the patterns of evolution of various systems – technological
machines, manufacturing processes, scientific theories, organizations,
works of art, and so on. Based on these patterns, methods have been
developed for searching for creative solutions. These methods include
three basic components:
- The logical analysis of a given system
and its problems. This enables users of TRIZ to understand the essence
of a problem and to reveal the non-obvious contradictions that hinder
- The application of a special
knowledge-base that includes the most effective methods of problem
solving, along with examples of how these methods are used.
- The means to overcome psychological
inertia in the process of problem solving.
TRIZ enables users to perfect any system
and to solve the overwhelming majority of creative problems. But what is
probably the very essence of TRIZ: its use formulates a new way of
thinking, one which is more logical, purposeful, and creative. To date
TRIZ has been applied to technology, science, medicine, forecasting,
preventing and eliminating emergency situations and various undesirable
phenomena (accidents, manufacturing defects, errors, crime, etc.),
managing people and organizations, business, and so on.
Experience in using TRIZ has shown that it
develops certain useful peculiarities in a TRIZ specialist’s way of
thinking, such as:
- The need for creativity; an orientation
toward searching for and solving creative problems in various areas
- The ability to apply creative methods
and models in various areas (for example, a person takes a TRIZ course
for solving technological problems, but ends up applying TRIZ methods
toward solving family or management problems, etc.)
- The development of a new type of
intuition based on the patterns of evolution
- The ability to quickly and effectively
assimilate knowledge in new areas. This is especially noticeable with
professional TRIZ specialists, who successfully generate creative
solutions for customers in various areas of human activity.
Altshuller began teaching TRIZ to engineers
in the 1960s. Soon afterwards it became clear that it is impossible to
teach creativity using traditional, non-creative means. The basic ideas of
TRIZ pedagogy (for teaching adults and children) are as follows:
- The study of any subject as an evolving
- The relationship between various
subjects through the patterns of evolution of systems
- Teaching students to consciously apply
creative problem-solving methods
- Teaching any subject via demonstration
of the solving of creative problems
- Mastering the methods for overcoming
For the education of children, TRIZ
pedagogy has an additional set of objectives:
- The preservation and reinforcement of a
child’s natural creative inclinations
- The formation of a creative, vital
orientation toward the achievement of Great Goals
- The formation of a creative way of
thinking (by means of the special course "Developing a creative
- Mastering the TRIZ technique of quick
TRIZ pedagogy was created for the purpose
of teaching TRIZ. In the early 1980s, however, the authors attempted for
the first time to apply TRIZ methods to teaching other scholastic
subjects, first with physics and chemistry for 12-year-olds. This turned
out to be very effective; students were very successful in learning the
course material. The experience has since been extended by many other
specialists, who have applied TRIZ to teaching nearly all subjects for all
age groups, from pre-school to the university level.
Can We Teach Creatively?
The principal premise of creative pedagogy
is "learning should be fun." The joy of education is, for the
most part, related to its creative nature, to pleasure achieved through
problem solving. This does not mean that all the education should be
creative only. It is quite possible to use the elements of traditional
pedagogy, "diluting" them from time to time with creative tasks.
The first steps in any education is the
assimilation of new knowledge, comparing it with existing knowledge and
ideas, revealing and resolving contradictions, determining the parts
missing from the whole, verbalizing doubts with the purpose of formulating
questions, and so on. This is typical of the creative process, and is what
makes it so attractive. During the next stage of education, the
assimilation of new ideas gives way to memorization. This is a
non-creative process, however, even memorization can become more
attractive by incorporating, from time to time, elements of creativity.
In the process of human evolution the most
powerful tool for creative education – the game – was created. Games
have all the components of creative work stated above. A game provides the
complex assimilation of various kinds of knowledge, and develops practical
skill, psychological skill, intellectual skill, etc. Games are oriented
toward training and the satisfaction of all basic human needs. It is games
that enable young children to assimilate the enormous quantity of
information necessary to orient them in their surroundings.
Art can be considered "play" for
adults. One of the basic functions of art is creative education by means
of personal involvement in the process of co-authorship. For example, when
a person listens to music, he is constantly and involuntarily playing a
game: he is trying to guess what the next note will be; when listening to
poems he is guessing the following rhyme, and so on. A person obtains his
primary art education by perceiving (i.e., viewing, listening, etc.); then
obtains a more profound and well-rounded art education by attempting to
create his own (even poor) works of art.
Games have always been used as an auxiliary
means of education. In the last few decades, methods of education based on
games, including computer games, have become widely practiced.
All these are separate attempts to develop
a system of complex education. They have one general defect, however: the
basic element – teaching a methodology for creative searching – is
missing. These attempts will never be successful without it.
TRIZ education should become a kernel
around which all these separate methods can be unified. Consider the
following example: the authors conducted a class where several dozens of
new, original kaleidoscopes were invented using TRIZ. Kaleidoscopes were
invented that had mobile elements, that used electrical, chemical, and
geometric effects, etc. Later, some calculation and design work was
performed together with the children. They were given detailed
explanations about optics, the rules of refraction in a lens, reflection
in a mirror, dispersion of light in a prism, certain mathematical
concepts, and so on. When conditions allowed, it would be possible to
manufacture the kaleidoscopes they had invented, to introduce the elements
of mechanics, chemistry, and so on, to work on a patent application for
the kaleidoscopes. This would provide an opportunity to acquaint children
with the elements of patent law, and so on. A TRIZ-coordinated system of
tasks such as these could be created for various age groups.
Child is an Inborn Creative Person
In the early 1980s the authors studied the
classic work of Jean Piaget on the peculiarities of a child’s way of
thinking. We were astonished by the analogies between a child’s thinking
and the TRIZ way of thinking (see Table 1). A comparison of adults’,
children’s, and the TRIZ way of thinking allows us to draw a conclusion
(not an original one; it has been widely discussed in the world of
that any healthy child can develop creative abilities in any area of human
activity. When an adult studies a foreign language, he can support it with
knowledge of his native language, he can draw an analogy, such as "der
Tisch – the table," and memorize the word. But a child does not
have such support; no one can explain to him/her what "table"
means. He must make his own creative generalizations to recognize what can
be called a table and what cannot. It is not yet been known how, i.e., by
which psychological and physiological mechanisms, this tremendous creative
work is performed, but only that they form the creative elements of a
child’s thinking. And it is not by a chance that these things are
similar to the mechanisms of TRIZ thinking, which have resulted from
extensive research and development.
Unfortunately, these natural mechanisms of
a creative child’s perception almost completely disappear later in life.
Some people – but only some – preserve them to a greater or lesser
degree. (It is not by mere chance that creative abilities often coincide
with infantilism.) There are various reasons for this. On the one hand,
the ability to speak makes it possible for a child to use a new cognitive
method – simply ask. On the other hand, this more effective and
economical, but less creative, way substitutes for the previous, creative
A 5- to 8-year-old child begins to master
logic; his/her thinking gradually becomes more logical and less creative
because the creative moment is paralogical. It cannot easily be
transferred to someone whose thinking is based on logic. Language itself
plays an important role in ousting creativity. According to the theory of
"linguistic relativity" developed in the thirties in the United
States by E. Sepir and B. Worf, the structure of language, to a large
degree, determines the structure of thinking and the cognitive way one
experiences one’s surroundings. All existing languages are based on
classical logic. They were created not for the purpose of creativity, but
for normal living.
The main reason, however, for the
suppression of a child’s creative abilities is most likely the absence
of the conditions necessary for reinforcing and developing these
abilities, as well as the lack of creative stimulation on the part of
parents and teachers. Because it is responsible for public tranquillity,
society is instinctively afraid of children who are too creative. Such
children are unpredictable and often inclined to break tradition,
discipline, etc. They attempt to do everything their own way, require
additional attention, and so on.
The basic problem with the creative
pedagogy of young children is mastering the "adult" way of
thinking – logic – while preserving the elements of the child’s
creative approach. In contrast, for adults and older children the problem
is to restore the lost creative thinking. TRIZ pedagogy has developed a
special means for implementing both of these tasks.
When forming a person’s creative needs
and goals, one should bear in mind that it can make the person’s life
more complicated, can increase the level of stress, and so on. Therefore,
along with a means for stimulating creativity, the "Vital Strategy of
a Creative Person," was developed – a kind of educational course
for developing activities for creative achievements, learning what dangers
a creative person is likely to meet, and how they can be overcome.
As a creative personality, a child is not a
match for modern "mass" pedagogy. French fashion designers
consider the mop as the ideal female figure because a designer can drape
it however he/she desires. The conditions of "mass pedagogy
production" dictate standardization of the half-finished, as well as
the final, "product." Individual characteristics and desires
have been neglected (if they do not hamper the processing) or fought
against. If the struggle does not yield results, the "half-finished
product" is rejected in some way.
Almost everyone who has attended a regular
school can recall some kind of student revolt against a teacher or against
the educational system as a whole. This is the instinctive fight of the
individual against the inevitable depersonalization of "mass
pedagogic production." Working with children of various ages, the
authors have become convinced that almost all of them have a negative
attitude toward the pedagogical methods of their parents or teachers. They
are sure that they know better how they should be brought up. A child’s
knowledge is limited, of course, but a child is capable of learning
anything, including the process of participating in his own upbringing.
Every person, to some degree, is a
"self-made man." Everyone to some extent plans and directs his
own life, "builds" himself. The trouble is that in the majority
of cases he does not know precisely what his goal is or how to achieve it;
he does not know himself and his surroundings. In such a case, a creative
teacher’s purpose is to convey to the student the idea of
self-perfection, and to help him achieve it. Creative pedagogy is an
attempt to replace the battle between teacher and student with the
child’s struggle for self-perfection. The teacher is the child’s
assistant and ally in this struggle.
Should Future Creators be Taught?
This section of the article is not related
to TRIZ pedagogy, but results from the application of TRIZ to the problems
of improving education.
The ever-increasing load that students must
bear is usually explained by the "information outburst" – by
the enormous increase in the amount of information regarded as necessary.
In reality this "outburst" is provoked by the accelerated
development of methods of communication, which have outdistanced our
system of selecting and processing information. As a result, an individual
receives a tremendous amount of non-structured, often useless,
information. Often he/she is simply unable to use this information due to
a lack of the necessary knowledge and skills.
The majority of school curriculums are
based on their creators’ personal experiences and preferences; sometimes
they are based on prejudices, such as opinions regarding what knowledge a
"man of culture" should possess.
It is necessary to develop a different
approach to educational courses, based on the specificity of information
- Specific information: information that
relates to specific problems. The average person faces such problems
rarely, by chance only.
- Non-specific information: knowledge and
skills that are widely used by the majority of people in various
For instance, reading skills and a
knowledge of basic arithmetic are non-specific skills, they are necessary
for everyone. On the other hand, the proof of the Pythagorean theorem,
knowledge of the frog’s third eyelid, and the name of the last ancient
Roman emperor (Tarquili the Proud) are very specific. Of the 200 people
surveyed by the authors, not one of them could prove the Pythagorean
theorem and recall these facts or, at least, recall a situation where a
need for these things had arisen. All this knowledge, however, is included
in school curriculums.5
It is impossible, of course, to divide all
knowledge and information on the basis of its specificity and the
likelihood of its being needed in the future without extensive research.
It is clear, however, that much of what comprises the curriculum in
schools will turn out to be useless, and entirely new subjects will be
included in future curriculums. We can attempt to name some of them:
- Information and skills necessary for
survival, good health, and the ability to work. The elements of
physical and psychological hygiene, sexual literacy, self-control,
self-training (control of feelings, emotions, moods, reflexes, sleep,
attention, ability to endure pain, and so on), self psychoanalytical
skills, courage, self-restraint, self confidence, etc . Self
protective skills, the ability to act appropriately in risky
- Information and skills necessary for
social life. Elements of psychology, communication skills, empathy.
Elements of artistry, of the ability to talk and listen, to be
convincing, to "read between the lines," to distinguish
truth from lies, to not submit automatically to suggestion, to
overcome conformity. To be knowledgeable in the regularities of social
functioning and evolution, basic laws, criminal and property
qualifications, the basics of management, trade, business.
- Thinking skills. Logical, systematic
approaches, formation of intuition and techniques for verbalizing
rules, the ability to use abstract models, idealization, techniques
for creative problem-solving, critical approaches, overcome
psychological inertia, perform a probabilistic assessment, make
decisions given unclear conditions.
- The ability to work with a knowledge
base. Rapid reading and purposeful memorization, the ability to
control one’s attention, to eliminate excessive information, to
systemize it. Computer skills.
- Knowledge base. Profound knowledge of
the environment – natural as well as technological. Knowledge of
chemical, physical, and other effects that are encountered in the life
of an average person. Understanding of basic scientific ideas, such as
the theory of evolution, thermodynamics, mathematics, etc.
Understanding of the basic ideas of the patterns of technological
evolution and basic technologies. Understanding of the basic patterns
of evolution of art, elementary skills in various kind of art.
- Manual labor skills; the ability to use
simple tools. Ideas regarding various human specialties and activities
(their merits and faults) sufficient for choosing a future profession.
Much of the knowledge and skills outlined
above should be closely linked.
of Thinking (Comparison)
contradictions, aspiration to avoid them
sensitiveness to contradictions, absence of aspiration to avoid
them in their arguments
contradictions, search for contradictions in problems.
Understanding that revealing and
formulation of an obvious contradiction is a step toward to its
approach, consideration the objects, processes and phenomena
separately, non systematically
aspiration to connect "everything with everything"
approach, aspiration to reveal the connections between remote
objects, processes and phenomena, that often look as though they
are not connected at all
combination of various types of deductions, that are often applied
- type of deduction, erroneous from the classical logic viewpoint,
were the deductions are made from the one specific fact to another
by analogue, transition of deductions, ideas, solutions between
various systems, with various levels of generality (an organized
combination of induction, deduction, and traduction)
of logic thinking and natural intuition
inborn ability to produce an intuitive deduction
of logic thinking with purposely formed intuition
obedience" – use of intuitively known or verbalized laws
of laws " -spontaneous search and development of intuitive
and verbalized laws
search and development of laws; verbalization of the intuitive
brain storm the difficult problem from one shot, retreat and
giving the solving up in the case of failure
of the problem. If a child is not able to solve a problem, he will
purposely modify the conditions and the rules and than will solve
the problem, that is possible for him to solve
of the problem by another one, that can be solved by certain rules
The authors and their colleagues have
accumulated a great deal of experience in TRIZ education for adults and
children, as well as in the teaching of other school subjects (physics,
chemistry, geometry, biology, literature, etc.). Some of our particular
experiences have been described in our books, which have been published in
Russia (items 1 – 4).
1. Altshuller, Genrich, Boris Zlotin, Alla
Zusman, and Vitalii Philatov. Searching for New Ideas: From Insight to
Methodology; The Theory and Practice of Inventive Problem Solving.
Kishinev: Kartya Moldovenyaska Publishing House, 1989.
The most complete source of Classical
TRIZ information available. Summarizes the development of TRIZ up until
1988. Includes sections on the general patterns of evolution, forming a
creative personality, the theory of evolution of organizations, and
elements of creative pedagogy.
2. STC Progress, Solving Scientific
Problems. Kishinev: STC Progress in association with Kartya
Moldovenyaska Publishing House, 1991.
This book is about applying TRIZ to
solving scientific tasks and problems. It includes the materials on
revealing and forecasting undesirable phenomena (manufacturing defects,
accidents, and so on), and on developing scientific organizations.
3. Zlotin, Boris, and Alla Zusman. A
Month under the Stars of Fantasy: A school for developing creative
imagination. Kishinev: Kartya Moldovenyaska Publishing House, 1988.
Describes the experience of creative
education in a summer camp. Contains recommendations for teachers or
parents and can be used as a reading book for students.
4. Zlotin, Boris, and Alla Zusman. The
Inventor Came to Class. Kishinev: Kartya Moldovenyaska Publishing
Describes methods for a creative approach
to teaching various subjects at school, and can be used as a reading
book for students.
5. Zlotin, Boris, Alla Zusman, and Svetlana
Visnepolschi. Petia and Dedalus; Teaching Youngsters to Create. (Collection
of articles published in a children’s newspaper during the late 1980s).
Summarizes the experience of several
years of teaching creativity to 1st- through 4th-grade
students. The book consists of two parts: The first part, intended for
children, is a collection of fairy tales in which the legendary inventor
Dedalus helps young Petia to solve the most unexpected inventive
problems. The second part, intended for parents and teachers, consists
of teaching methods, recommendations and pre-planned lessons based on
the stories in the first part.
6. Altshuller, Genrich. And Suddenly the
Inventor Appeared: TRIZ, the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving.
Translated by Lev Shulyak. Worchester, Massachusetts: Technical Innovation
Summarizes the author’s experience in
teaching children via a central children’s newspaper in the former
Soviet Union during the 1970s. There are three editions in Russian, as
well as various translations. Available in English.
published in the Journal of TRIZ, Volume 2, no. 4, February, 1991
(in Russian). The paper presented here has been translated and revised
from the original by Alla Zusman.
Abraham H. Maslow. Motivation and Personality (Addison-Wesley
Publishing Company, 1987).
Genrich Altshuller, Creativity as an Exact Science, trans.
Anthony Williams. (Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, 1984).
Rada Granovskaya. Basics of Practical Psychology (St.
Petersburg: St. Petersburg University Publishing House. In Russian.) Also
see numerous publications by the Russian educator and psychologist Boris
In Russian schools, at least.